What kind of DDoS attacks are there and how do they work?

Different distributed denial-of-service attack techniques exhaust or saturate the targeted system in different ways. There are three common types of attacks: volumetric attacks, protocol attacks, and application attacks. Each of these can last anywhere from minutes to months and can range from an unnoticeable amount of traffic to more than the highest throughput on record, reported at 1.35 terabits per second.

Volumetric attacks
Volumetric attacks saturate the bandwidth used by the targeted systems. This technique is the most common and the simplest for attackers to perform. Often, attackers use amplification techniques to generate this traffic to avoid needing an extremely large number of resources.

Read more: best ddos tool

Amplification attacks utilize large responses to small requests, amplifying the traffic to flood the target. This is often done by spoofing the source of the packets, known as reflection, or a reflection attack. For instance, by spoofing the source IP of a DNS request, an attacker can trick DNS servers into sending responses to the target instead of the originator. Since the request sent to the DNS server is small, but the response sent to the victim is large, the attacker is using reflection to amplify the volume of traffic sent to the target.

cloud engineer job skills

Cloud computing is a rapidly-growing tech field that involves creating IT systems and infrastructure in a web-based environment. Cloud engineers play an integral part in helping companies and organizations utilize new and quickly developing cloud infrastructure, tools, and applications.

The job duties of a cloud engineer may involve performing very technical tasks. Employers require engineers with knowledge, skills, and experience to handle this type of work. For this reason, cloud engineer jobs are usually high paying, and the field can be quite competitive.

A cloud engineer can take on different duties depending on their skillset and the needs of their employer or client. In general, a cloud engineer is responsible for implementing, maintaining, or customizing a cloud-based system. This career also usually involves providing support not only for the non-technical employees of a company or organization but also for other IT employees who need to perform their jobs in a cloud-based environment.

Furthermore, cloud engineers often focus on a specific system. For example, some engineers are more familiar with Amazon Web Services (AWS), while others work with Microsoft Azure. Some employers even require certification in a specific system before they hire a cloud engineer. Organizations such as CompTIA offer non-vendor-specific accreditations.

What types of images will work ok?

If you are scanning the images yourself from photographs it is better to save them in either tif, or eps format. These image formats will preserve the color and sharpness of your pictures the best.

File formats like gif or jpg compress the pictures color and pixel resolution and this can cause color shifts and blurriness. Since jpg and gif are the most predominant image formats on the web, it follows that it’s not a good idea to simply lift an image from someone’s website and use it in your layout.

Find more: hp certified technicians

You should scan your images using a resolution of 300dpi at the final dimensions you intend to use them so that your colors will look smooth, and hard objects will look sharp. In other words don’t scan at 300dpi and then enlarge the picture by 200% in your layout program! This is another reason why you should not use images that are lifted from websites; they are probably only 72dpi in resolution and will look very blurry if printed on a printing press. See our Resolution page for more information on resolution.
If you are using pictures from your digital camera they will work just fine if they are jpgs; the quality of jpg images from digital cameras seems to be much better than jpgs that are used on the web. You must do the math to make sure that it is high enough in pixel resolution though. For instance, if your camera puts out a typical image of 1280 x 960 pixels at 72dpi you get about 17″ x 13″ of photograph (at 72dpi); this is the same amount of detail as an image which is 4″ x 3″ at 300dpi so it’s safe to reduce or enlarge that image in Publisher up to about 4″ x 3″ in dimension.

A Day in the Life of a Network Engineer

A network engineer handles all of the “plumbing” for a company’s computers, connecting offices with T1 lines, hooking them up to the Internet, and configuring all internal systems such as net routers and firewalls. The position usually spills over into some Unix systems administration work, but “basically, it’s a plumbing job,” says one engineer. Configuring a start-up Web company is a pretty easy network design job; most of these companies have a small staff and only one location. But if you work for Citibank, for example, the network is incredibly complicated with tiers and tiers of network engineers. If you’re willing to wear a suit and tie every day, go to work for a bank where you’ll make twice as much as anywhere else.

A network engineer needs to know how to use some basic network devices like “packet sniffers,” but the work itself doesn’t utilize a lot of tools. “It’s a ‘noodly’ job; you have to be able to think your way through problems and understand how stuff works,” says one professional. You don’t spend a lot of time typing, but rather in front of white boards (like a chalk board you write on with markers) drawing pictures to visualize your solutions.

how much do network engineers make?

A typical day demands atypical hours; network engineers usually work off-hours when they’re tinkering with something, otherwise they’ll interrupt everyone else’s work. It’s the earmark of techies to show up later, often around 10 or 11 a.m., but they’re usually there until 7, 8 or 9 p.m. And most likely they’re wearing a pager and are always on call. Networking has a culture unto itself, and a subculture among those who work on the Net. But networking is really only glamorous to people in the field. “Anyone in the general public would not be like, ‘cool, you’re a network consultant,’” says one insider.

Source: princetonreview.com

Deployment Modes of Citrix SD WAN

Citrix SD-WAN offers flexible options for deployment depending on use cases, or high availability requirements in the primary Data Center, Branch, or Cloud Resource locations.

Inline
Hardware appliances can be deployed seamlessly in the path between the LAN and the WAN edge network. If the device goes offline for any reason the physical Ethernet connection, through the equipment between switches or routers, remains intact.

Virtual Inline
An approach that offers similar usage to Inline, without the need to physically interrupt the primary data center network. The Citrix SD-WAN equipment is implemented on a VLAN adjacent to the Edge router which uses policy routing to direct pertinent traffic to it for optimization.

Edge / Gateway Mode
Takes over responsibility for WAN edge networking including terminating leased lines, routing, firewall, and internet proxy filtering in addition to providing full SD-WAN functionality. This mode allows enterprises to consolidate branch hardware to maximize network throughput, availability, and security while minimizing complexity and cost.

Fail-to-Wire
Hardware platforms include fail-to-wire (Ethernet bypass) cards for direct in-path deployment. If power fails, a relay closes, and the input and output ports become electrically connected, allowing the Ethernet single to passthrough from one port to the other, defaulting to the existing underlay network.

Find more: SD-WAN vs. MPLS

High-Availability
The various deployment options (Inline, Virtual Inline, Edge) support high-availability. A pair of devices can be deployed at a site location in Active/Standby roles. This high availability deployment operates similar to Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol (VRRP), ensuring the SD-WAN Overlay is continuously active.

Geographically Distributed MCN
A secondary data center or branch site can be assigned the role of Secondary MCN (also known as GEO MCN). This site takes the responsibility of the primary data center SD-WAN and ensure that the SD-WAN Overlay continues to operate until the primary site comes back online.

SDWAN 2.0: The Right Stuff for a Multi-Cloud World

When I started my career in networking (longer ago than I care to admit), the industry was struggling with incompatible systems at the protocol and interface level. As a budding young engineer concerned with ordering a chaotic technosphere, the OSI model seemed like just the remedy. That was an era where innovation moved a lot more slowly. Today, when innovation is advancing at the pace of business, we need to use software and systems to innovate, just like we do with protocols. System APIs and orchestration allow us to build bigger systems, connecting to more things and do translations when needed to bridge gaps protocol standardization hasn’t caught to up yet or may never. This is what webscale is all about.

SDWAN is one of those system technologies that can be used to bridge the gaps to the multi-cloud network. The SDWAN fabric is the perfect unified method to access the multi-cloud, IaaS and SaaS. There are key benefits to attaching multi-cloud sites directly onto the SDWAN fabric.

What is SD-WAN Networks?

Today, through cloud APIs, we can orchestrate SDWAN access to different cloud providers, deploy posture-based network security as well as provide optimal multi-path access, traffic engineering and application awareness to Enterprise workloads, wherever they may be. All this in addition to traditional branch and private data center connectivity. Having a single access method – SDWAN – to the myriad of new endpoints, with the ability to policy user, network and security policies in a consistent way across the network is a critical operational benefit. Its speeds rollout of new users and applications, is less error-prone, more secure and makes for much easier troubleshooting and maintenance.

Types of SLA based services

Types of SLA based services can include SLA cloud services, SLA managed services and SLA telecommunication services.

SLA cloud service agreements ensure that customers of cloud-based services get a minimum level of service. This is essential for cloud-based services because businesses need them to be reliable. They should help businesses to be more productive, scalable and global, but this will only happen if they work well.

SLA managed services give businesses an agreement for the level of managed IT services that they will receive. Managed IT services are ideal for businesses looking for a reliable service that can be there for them whenever they need it. Maintaining IT systems is essential, and having a clear outline for how the services will be provided is vital.

SLA telecommunication services make it possible to set out the rules for delivering telecommunication products to customers. The agreement sets out the requirements of the customer and how the services can be monitored once they’re in place.

How to evaluate the support service?

First, we will evaluate the situation as a whole for all support (tab general statistics).

Workload by the hour is the metric that will help you optimally distribute operators among shifts. Evaluate whether you have enough operators during peak hours of calls and whether it is possible to reduce their number when users almost do not write. This will help speed up customer response times, reduce rush hour workloads and optimize operator costs during low-activity hours.

Response time is one of the most important metrics. If you respond slowly, customers can leave without waiting for an answer and be disappointed in your support (which increases the number of missed questions – when the operator gave an answer and the user has not read it already). Reducing the response time is not so simple, for this it is necessary to optimize the processes in the support service. For example, introduce the first line, which will sort questions and write to clients that help will come soon.

The remaining metrics show the full picture of the work of your department, but do not affect the decisions made (if you act on the basis of some other metrics, write to us, we will gladly add them to the user case).

What does a Service Desk Analysts do?

The tab for operators shows the statistics of individual operators. This helps to evaluate their load (the column “participates in questions”) and the success of their work (“resolved issues”, as well as if the operator has a lot of missed and unanswered dialogs, he obviously can’t cope).

And channel statistics . See the distribution of dialogs by channel. For example, you set them up by departments – then you can evaluate the success of processing calls by specific departments. Or messages from different sources (mail, social networks, Yandex.Dialogues) get into your channels – then they will show the effectiveness of this particular channel.

Multi-level SLA

The third and the last type of service level agreement is the multi-level SLA. In multi-level SLA, aspects of SLA are defined according to the organization of the customer using some kind of inheritance with overall definitions with relevance for all subordinate levels. This SLA focuses on the organization of the customer. All services and their interrelationships with subordinate services are used when defining the multi-level service level agreement structure.

What are the Types of SLA based services?

Maintaining service level agreements are part of service level management. Every time a service change, or the service level target of a service change, the service level agreement needs to be reviewed and revised. The new service level agreement needs to reflect the changes made to the service or the service level targets. Therefore, the management of service level agreements is an important part of ITIL continual service improvement.

Why it’s important to have an SLA
Without a service level agreement, it is not clear what will happen if one of the parties do not hold up to their end of the bargain. For example, let’s consider that a telecom provider’s service level target is to answer all help desk calls within 5 seconds, and the calls are only being answered within 5 minutes.

What does an IT Administrator do?

Compared to, say, NASA Command Pilot or Memory Augmentation Surgeon, the humble two-worded title of IT Administrator may not sound the most exciting or complicated job in the world. Still, it would be a mistake to let that fool you as it’s one of the most professionally adaptable and important job titles out there. Why is that? What do you need to become one? What does the job actually entail? And where can it take you in your career?

Where is an IT administrator likely to work?
Given that pretty much every job these days – bar perhaps, say, a lumberjack – will largely require some form of IT support… basically <<anywhere>>. Career opportunities for an IT administrator are virtually limitless because they are in demand everywhere. Want proof? Well, even a small cross-section of the current Jobsite vacancies for IT administration jobs includes roles with companies specialising in Research & Development, Data Security, Digital Media, Financial Services, Telecommunications, Education, Insurance, Retail, Design & Manufacturing and even Biomedical Software.